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identify.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <linux/types.h>
#include <endian.h>

#if __BYTE_ORDER == __BIG_ENDIAN
#define __USE_XOPEN
#endif

#include <unistd.h>
#include "hdparm.h"

/* device types */
/* ------------ */
#define NO_DEV                  0xffff
#define ATA_DEV                 0x0000
#define ATAPI_DEV               0x0001

/* word definitions */
/* ---------------- */
#define GEN_CONFIG            0   /* general configuration */
#define LCYLS                 1   /* number of logical cylinders */
#define CONFIG                2   /* specific configuration */
#define LHEADS                3   /* number of logical heads */
#define TRACK_BYTES           4   /* number of bytes/track (ATA-1) */
#define SECT_BYTES            5   /* number of bytes/sector (ATA-1) */
#define LSECTS                6   /* number of logical sectors/track */
#define START_SERIAL            10  /* ASCII serial number */
#define LENGTH_SERIAL           10  /* 10 words (20 bytes or characters) */
#define BUF_TYPE        20  /* buffer type (ATA-1) */
#define BUF_SIZE        21  /* buffer size (ATA-1) */
#define RW_LONG               22  /* extra bytes in R/W LONG cmd ( < ATA-4)*/
#define START_FW_REV            23  /* ASCII firmware revision */
#define LENGTH_FW_REV          4  /*  4 words (8 bytes or characters) */
#define START_MODEL           27  /* ASCII model number */
#define LENGTH_MODEL          20  /* 20 words (40 bytes or characters) */
#define SECTOR_XFER_MAX         47  /* r/w multiple: max sectors xfered */
#define DWORD_IO        48  /* can do double-word IO (ATA-1 only) */
#define CAPAB_0               49  /* capabilities */
#define CAPAB_1               50
#define PIO_MODE        51  /* max PIO mode supported (obsolete)*/
#define DMA_MODE        52  /* max Singleword DMA mode supported (obs)*/
#define WHATS_VALID           53  /* what fields are valid */
#define LCYLS_CUR       54  /* current logical cylinders */
#define LHEADS_CUR            55  /* current logical heads */
#define LSECTS_CUR              56  /* current logical sectors/track */
#define CAPACITY_LSB          57  /* current capacity in sectors */
#define CAPACITY_MSB          58
#define SECTOR_XFER_CUR       59  /* r/w multiple: current sectors xfered */
#define LBA_SECTS_LSB         60  /* LBA: total number of user */
#define LBA_SECTS_MSB         61  /*      addressable sectors */
#define SINGLE_DMA            62  /* singleword DMA modes */
#define MULTI_DMA       63  /* multiword DMA modes */
#define ADV_PIO_MODES         64  /* advanced PIO modes supported */
                            /* multiword DMA xfer cycle time: */
#define DMA_TIME_MIN          65  /*   - minimum */
#define DMA_TIME_NORM         66  /*   - manufacturer's recommended     */
                            /* minimum PIO xfer cycle time: */
#define PIO_NO_FLOW           67  /*   - without flow control */
#define PIO_FLOW        68  /*   - with IORDY flow control */
#define PKT_REL               71  /* typical #ns from PKT cmd to bus rel */
#define SVC_NBSY        72  /* typical #ns from SERVICE cmd to !BSY */
#define CDR_MAJOR       73  /* CD ROM: major version number */
#define CDR_MINOR       74  /* CD ROM: minor version number */
#define QUEUE_DEPTH           75  /* queue depth */
#define MAJOR                 80  /* major version number */
#define MINOR                 81  /* minor version number */
#define CMDS_SUPP_0           82  /* command/feature set(s) supported */
#define CMDS_SUPP_1           83
#define CMDS_SUPP_2           84
#define CMDS_EN_0       85  /* command/feature set(s) enabled */
#define CMDS_EN_1       86
#define CMDS_EN_2       87
#define ULTRA_DMA       88  /* ultra DMA modes */
                            /* time to complete security erase */
#define ERASE_TIME            89  /*   - ordinary */
#define ENH_ERASE_TIME        90  /*   - enhanced */
#define ADV_PWR               91  /* current advanced power management level
                               in low byte, 0x40 in high byte. */  
#define PSWD_CODE       92  /* master password revision code      */
#define HWRST_RSLT            93  /* hardware reset result */
#define ACOUSTIC              94  /* acoustic mgmt values ( >= ATA-6) */
#define LBA_LSB               100 /* LBA: maximum.  Currently only 48 */
#define LBA_MID               101 /*      bits are used, but addr 103 */
#define LBA_48_MSB            102 /*      has been reserved for LBA in */
#define LBA_64_MSB            103 /*      the future. */
#define RM_STAT         127 /* removable media status notification feature set support */
#define SECU_STATUS           128 /* security status */
#define CFA_PWR_MODE          160 /* CFA power mode 1 */
#define START_MEDIA             176 /* media serial number */
#define LENGTH_MEDIA            20  /* 20 words (40 bytes or characters)*/
#define START_MANUF             196 /* media manufacturer I.D. */
#define LENGTH_MANUF            10  /* 10 words (20 bytes or characters) */
#define INTEGRITY       255 /* integrity word */

/* bit definitions within the words */
/* -------------------------------- */

/* many words are considered valid if bit 15 is 0 and bit 14 is 1 */
#define VALID                 0xc000
#define VALID_VAL       0x4000
/* many words are considered invalid if they are either all-0 or all-1 */
#define NOVAL_0               0x0000
#define NOVAL_1               0xffff

/* word 0: gen_config */
#define NOT_ATA               0x8000      
#define NOT_ATAPI       0x4000      /* (check only if bit 15 == 1) */
#define MEDIA_REMOVABLE       0x0080
#define DRIVE_NOT_REMOVABLE   0x0040  /* bit obsoleted in ATA 6 */
#define INCOMPLETE            0x0004
#define CFA_SUPPORT_VAL       0x848a      /* 848a=CFA feature set support */
#define DRQ_RESPONSE_TIME     0x0060
#define DRQ_3MS_VAL           0x0000
#define DRQ_INTR_VAL          0x0020
#define DRQ_50US_VAL          0x0040
#define PKT_SIZE_SUPPORTED    0x0003
#define PKT_SIZE_12_VAL       0x0000
#define PKT_SIZE_16_VAL       0x0001
#define EQPT_TYPE       0x1f00
#define SHIFT_EQPT            8

#define CDROM 0x0005
const char *pkt_str[] = {
      "Direct-access device",             /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 00 */
      "Sequential-access device",         /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 01 */
      "Printer",                    /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 02 */
      "Processor",                        /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 03 */
      "Write-once device",                /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 04 */
      "CD-ROM",                     /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 05 */
      "Scanner",                    /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 06 */
      "Optical memory",             /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 07 */
      "Medium changer",             /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 08 */
      "Communications device",            /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 09 */
      "ACS-IT8 device",             /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 0a */
      "ACS-IT8 device",             /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 0b */
      "Array controller",                 /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 0c */
      "Enclosure services",               /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 0d */
      "Reduced block command device",           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 0e */
      "Optical card reader/writer",       /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 0f */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 10 */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 11 */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 12 */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 13 */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 14 */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 15 */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 16 */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 17 */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 18 */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 19 */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 1a */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 1b */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 1c */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 1d */
      "",                           /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 1e */
      "Unknown",                    /* word 0, bits 12-8 = 1f */
};
const char *ata1_cfg_str[] = {                  /* word 0 in ATA-1 mode */
      "reserved",                   /* bit 0 */
      "hard sectored",              /* bit 1 */
      "soft sectored",              /* bit 2 */
      "not MFM encoded ",                 /* bit 3 */
      "head switch time > 15us",          /* bit 4 */
      "spindle motor control option",           /* bit 5 */
      "fixed drive",                      /* bit 6 */
      "removable drive",                  /* bit 7 */
      "disk xfer rate <= 5Mbs",           /* bit 8 */
      "disk xfer rate > 5Mbs, <= 10Mbs",  /* bit 9 */
      "disk xfer rate > 5Mbs",            /* bit 10 */
      "rotational speed tol.",            /* bit 11 */
      "data strobe offset option",        /* bit 12 */
      "track offset option",              /* bit 13 */
      "format speed tolerance gap reqd",  /* bit 14 */
      "ATAPI"                             /* bit 14 */
};

/* word 1: number of logical cylinders */
#define LCYLS_MAX       0x3fff /* maximum allowable value */

/* word 2: specific configureation 
 * (a) require SET FEATURES to spin-up
 * (b) require spin-up to fully reply to IDENTIFY DEVICE
 */
#define STBY_NID_VAL          0x37c8  /*     (a) and     (b) */
#define STBY_ID_VAL           0x738c      /*     (a) and not (b) */
#define PWRD_NID_VAL          0x8c73      /* not (a) and     (b) */
#define PWRD_ID_VAL           0xc837      /* not (a) and not (b) */

/* words 47 & 59: sector_xfer_max & sector_xfer_cur */
#define SECTOR_XFER           0x00ff  /* sectors xfered on r/w multiple cmds*/
#define MULTIPLE_SETTING_VALID  0x0100  /* 1=multiple sector setting is valid */

/* word 49: capabilities 0 */
#define STD_STBY              0x2000  /* 1=standard values supported (ATA);
                                 0=vendor specific values */
#define IORDY_SUP       0x0800  /* 1=support; 0=may be supported */
#define IORDY_OFF       0x0400  /* 1=may be disabled */
#define LBA_SUP               0x0200  /* 1=Logical Block Address support */
#define DMA_SUP               0x0100  /* 1=Direct Memory Access support */
#define DMA_IL_SUP            0x8000  /* 1=interleaved DMA support (ATAPI) */
#define CMD_Q_SUP       0x4000  /* 1=command queuing support (ATAPI) */
#define OVLP_SUP        0x2000  /* 1=overlap operation support (ATAPI) */
#define SWRST_REQ       0x1000  /* 1=ATA SW reset required (ATAPI, obsolete */

/* word 50: capabilities 1 */
#define MIN_STANDBY_TIMER     0x0001  /* 1=device specific standby timer value minimum */

/* words 51 & 52: PIO & DMA cycle times */
#define MODE                  0xff00  /* the mode is in the MSBs */

/* word 53: whats_valid */
#define OK_W88                0x0004      /* the ultra_dma info is valid */
#define OK_W64_70       0x0002  /* see above for word descriptions */
#define OK_W54_58       0x0001  /* current cyl, head, sector, cap. info valid */

/*word 63,88: dma_mode, ultra_dma_mode*/
#define MODE_MAX        7     /* bit definitions force udma <=7 (when
                               * udma >=8 comes out it'll have to be
                               * defined in a new dma_mode word!) */

/* word 64: PIO transfer modes */
#define PIO_SUP               0x00ff  /* only bits 0 & 1 are used so far,  */
#define PIO_MODE_MAX          8       /* but all 8 bits are defined        */

/* word 75: queue_depth */
#define DEPTH_BITS            0x001f  /* bits used for queue depth */

/* words 80-81: version numbers */
/* NOVAL_0 or  NOVAL_1 means device does not report version */

/* word 81: minor version number */
#define MINOR_MAX       0x1f
const char *minor_str[] = {                     /* word 81 value: */
      "Unspecified",                            /* 0x0000   */
      "ATA-1 X3T9.2 781D prior to revision 4",  /* 0x0001   */
      "ATA-1 published, ANSI X3.221-1994",            /* 0x0002   */
      "ATA-1 X3T9.2 781D revision 4",                 /* 0x0003   */
      "ATA-2 published, ANSI X3.279-1996",            /* 0x0004   */
      "ATA-2 X3T10 948D prior to revision 2k",  /* 0x0005   */
      "ATA-3 X3T10 2008D revision 1",                 /* 0x0006   */
      "ATA-2 X3T10 948D revision 2k",                 /* 0x0007   */
      "ATA-3 X3T10 2008D revision 0",                 /* 0x0008   */
      "ATA-2 X3T10 948D revision 3",                  /* 0x0009   */
      "ATA-3 published, ANSI X3.298-199x",            /* 0x000a   */
      "ATA-3 X3T10 2008D revision 6",                 /* 0x000b   */
      "ATA-3 X3T13 2008D revision 7 and 7a",          /* 0x000c   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-4 X3T13 1153D revision 6",           /* 0x000d   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-4 T13 1153D revision 13",            /* 0x000e   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-4 X3T13 1153D revision 7",           /* 0x000f   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-4 T13 1153D revision 18",            /* 0x0010   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-4 T13 1153D revision 15",            /* 0x0011   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-4 published, ANSI NCITS 317-1998",   /* 0x0012   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-5 T13 1321D revision 3",
      "ATA/ATAPI-4 T13 1153D revision 14",            /* 0x0014   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-5 T13 1321D revision 1",       /* 0x0015   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-5 published, ANSI NCITS 340-2000",   /* 0x0016   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-4 T13 1153D revision 17",            /* 0x0017   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-6 T13 1410D revision 0",       /* 0x0018   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-6 T13 1410D revision 3a",            /* 0x0019   */
      "Reserved",                         /* 0x001a   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-6 T13 1410D revision 2",       /* 0x001b   */
      "ATA/ATAPI-6 T13 1410D revision 1",       /* 0x001c   */
      "Reserved"                          /* 0x001d   */
      "Reserved"                          /* 0x001e   */
      "Reserved"                          /* 0x001f-0xfffe*/
};
const char actual_ver[] = { 
                  /* word 81 value: */
      0,          /* 0x0000   WARNING:    */
      1,          /* 0x0001   WARNING:    */
      1,          /* 0x0002   WARNING:    */
      1,          /* 0x0003   WARNING:    */
      2,          /* 0x0004   WARNING:   This array         */
      2,          /* 0x0005   WARNING:   corresponds        */
      3,          /* 0x0006   WARNING:   *exactly*          */
      2,          /* 0x0007   WARNING:   to the ATA/        */
      3,          /* 0x0008   WARNING:   ATAPI version      */
      2,          /* 0x0009   WARNING:   listed in          */
      3,          /* 0x000a   WARNING:   the                */
      3,          /* 0x000b   WARNING:   minor_str          */
      3,          /* 0x000c   WARNING:   array        */
      4,          /* 0x000d   WARNING:   above.       */
      4,          /* 0x000e   WARNING:                */
      4,          /* 0x000f   WARNING:   if you change      */
      4,          /* 0x0010   WARNING:   that one,          */
      4,          /* 0x0011   WARNING:   change this one    */
      4,          /* 0x0012   WARNING:   too!!!             */
      5,          /* 0x0013   WARNING:    */
      4,          /* 0x0014   WARNING:    */
      5,          /* 0x0015   WARNING:    */
      5,          /* 0x0016   WARNING:    */
      4,          /* 0x0017   WARNING:    */
      6,          /* 0x0018   WARNING:    */
      6,          /* 0x0019   WARNING:    */
      0,          /* 0x001a   WARNING:    */
      6,          /* 0x001b   WARNING:    */
      6,          /* 0x001c   WARNING:    */
      0,          /* 0x001d   WARNING:    */
      0,          /* 0x001e   WARNING:    */
      0           /* 0x001f-0xfffe              */
};

/* words 82-84: cmds/feats supported */
#define CMDS_W82        0x77ff  /* word 82: defined command locations*/
#define CMDS_W83        0x3fff  /* word 83: defined command locations*/
#define CMDS_W84        0x002f  /* word 83: defined command locations*/
#define SUPPORT_48_BIT        0x0400  
#define NUM_CMD_FEAT_STR      48

const char *cmd_feat_str[] = { 
      "",                           /* word 82 bit 15: obsolete  */
      "NOP cmd",                    /* word 82 bit 14 */
      "READ BUFFER cmd",                  /* word 82 bit 13 */
      "WRITE BUFFER cmd",                 /* word 82 bit 12 */
      "",                           /* word 82 bit 11: obsolete  */
      "Host Protected Area feature set",  /* word 82 bit 10 */
      "DEVICE RESET cmd",                 /* word 82 bit  9 */
      "SERVICE interrupt",                /* word 82 bit  8 */
      "Release interrupt",                /* word 82 bit  7 */
      "Look-ahead",                       /* word 82 bit  6 */
      "Write cache",                      /* word 82 bit  5 */
      "PACKET command feature set",       /* word 82 bit  4 */
      "Power Management feature set",           /* word 82 bit  3 */
      "Removable Media feature set",            /* word 82 bit  2 */
      "Security Mode feature set",        /* word 82 bit  1 */
      "SMART feature set",                /* word 82 bit  0 */
                                    /* --------------*/
      "",                           /* word 83 bit 15: !valid bit */
      "",                           /* word 83 bit 14:  valid bit */
      "FLUSH CACHE EXT command",          /* word 83 bit 13 */
      "Mandatory FLUSH CACHE command ",   /* word 83 bit 12 */
      "Device Configuration Overlay feature set ",
      "48-bit Address feature set ",            /* word 83 bit 10 */
      "Automatic Acoustic Management feature set ",
      "SET MAX security extension",       /* word 83 bit  8 */
      "Address Offset Reserved Area Boot",      /* word 83 bit  7 */
      "SET FEATURES subcommand required to spinup after power up",
      "Power-Up In Standby feature set",  /* word 83 bit  5 */
      "Removable Media Status Notification feature set",
      "Advanced Power Management feature set",/* word 83 bit  3 */
      "CFA feature set",                  /* word 83 bit  2 */
      "READ/WRITE DMA QUEUED",            /* word 83 bit  1 */
      "DOWNLOAD MICROCODE cmd",           /* word 83 bit  0 */
                                    /* --------------*/
      "",                           /* word 84 bit 15: !valid bit */
      "",                           /* word 84 bit 14:  valid bit */
      "",                           /* word 84 bit 13:  reserved */
      "",                           /* word 84 bit 12:  reserved */
      "",                           /* word 84 bit 11:  reserved */
      "",                           /* word 84 bit 10:  reserved */
      "",                           /* word 84 bit  9:  reserved */
      "",                           /* word 84 bit  8:  reserved */
      "",                           /* word 84 bit  7:  reserved */
      "",                           /* word 84 bit  6:  reserved */
      "General Purpose Logging feature set",    /* word 84 bit  5 */
      "",                           /* word 84 bit  4:  reserved */
      "Media Card Pass Through Command feature set ",
      "Media serial number ",             /* word 84 bit  2 */
      "SMART self-test ",                 /* word 84 bit  1 */
      "SMART error logging "              /* word 84 bit  0 */
};


/* words 85-87: cmds/feats enabled */
/* use cmd_feat_str[] to display what commands and features have
 * been enabled with words 85-87 
 */

/* words 89, 90, SECU ERASE TIME */
#define ERASE_BITS            0x00ff

/* word 92: master password revision */
/* NOVAL_0 or  NOVAL_1 means no support for master password revision */

/* word 93: hw reset result */
#define CBLID                 0x2000  /* CBLID status */
#define RST0                  0x0001  /* 1=reset to device #0 */
#define DEV_DET               0x0006  /* how device num determined */
#define JUMPER_VAL            0x0002  /* device num determined by jumper */
#define CSEL_VAL        0x0004  /* device num determined by CSEL_VAL */

/* word 127: removable media status notification feature set support */
#define RM_STAT_BITS          0x0003
#define RM_STAT_SUP           0x0001
      
/* word 128: security */
#define SECU_ENABLED          0x0002
#define SECU_LEVEL            0x0100      /* was 0x0010 */
#define NUM_SECU_STR          6
const char *secu_str[] = {
      "supported",                  /* word 128, bit 0 */
      "enabled",              /* word 128, bit 1 */
      "locked",               /* word 128, bit 2 */
      "frozen",               /* word 128, bit 3 */
      "expired: security count",    /* word 128, bit 4 */
      "supported: enhanced erase"   /* word 128, bit 5 */
};

/* word 160: CFA power mode */
#define VALID_W160            0x8000  /* 1=word valid */
#define PWR_MODE_REQ          0x2000  /* 1=CFA power mode req'd by some cmds*/
#define PWR_MODE_OFF          0x1000  /* 1=CFA power moded disabled */
#define MAX_AMPS        0x0fff  /* value = max current in ma */

/* word 255: integrity */
#define SIG             0x00ff  /* signature location */
#define SIG_VAL               0x00A5  /* signature value */

__u8 mode_loop(__u16 mode_sup, __u16 mode_sel, int cc, __u8 *have_mode);
void print_ascii(__u16 *p, __u8 length);

/* our main() routine: */
void identify (__u16 *id_supplied, const char *devname)
{

      char *id_file = NULL, fmt[]="/proc/ide/%s/identify";
      FILE *fl;
      __u16 val[256], ii, jj, kk;
      __u16 like_std = 1, std = 0, min_std = 0xffff;
      __u16 dev = NO_DEV, eqpt = NO_DEV;
      __u8  have_mode = 0, err_dma = 0;
      __u8  chksum = 0;
      __u32 ll, mm, nn;
      __u64 bb, bbbig; /* (:) */

      if (id_supplied) {
            memcpy(val, id_supplied, sizeof(val));
      } else {
            id_file = calloc(1, strlen(devname)+1+strlen(fmt));
            sprintf(id_file, fmt, devname);

            /* open the file, read in all the info and close it */
            if (id_file == NULL) {
                  fl = stdin;
            } else if(NULL == (fl = fopen(id_file, "r"))) {
                  perror(id_file);
                  exit(errno);
            }
            /* calculate checksum over all bytes */
            for(ii = GEN_CONFIG; ii<=INTEGRITY; ii++) {
                  unsigned int scratch;
                  if(1 != fscanf(fl,"%04x",&scratch)) break;
                  val[ii] = (__u16)scratch;
                  chksum += val[ii] + (val[ii] >> 8);
            }
            fclose(fl);  
            if(ii < (INTEGRITY+1)) {
                  fprintf(stderr,"Input file wrong format or length\n");
                  exit(ii);
            }
      }
      chksum &= 0xff;

      /* check if we recognise the device type */
      printf("\n");
      if(!(val[GEN_CONFIG] & NOT_ATA)) {
            dev = ATA_DEV;
            printf("ATA device, with ");
      } else if(val[GEN_CONFIG]==CFA_SUPPORT_VAL) {
            dev = ATA_DEV;
            like_std = 4;
            printf("CompactFlash ATA device, with ");
      } else if(!(val[GEN_CONFIG] & NOT_ATAPI)) {
            dev = ATAPI_DEV;
            eqpt = (val[GEN_CONFIG] & EQPT_TYPE) >> SHIFT_EQPT;
            printf("ATAPI %s, with ", pkt_str[eqpt]);
            like_std = 3;
      } else {
            printf("Unknown device type:\n\tbits 15&14 of general configuration word 0 both set to 1.\n");
            exit(EINVAL);
      }
      if(!(val[GEN_CONFIG] & MEDIA_REMOVABLE))
            printf("non-");
      printf("removable media\n");


      /* Info from the specific configuration word says whether or not the
       * ID command completed correctly.  It is only defined, however in
       * ATA/ATAPI-5 & 6; it is reserved (value theoretically 0) in prior 
       * standards.  Since the values allowed for this word are extremely
       * specific, it should be safe to check it now, even though we don't
       * know yet what standard this device is using.
       */
      if((val[CONFIG]==STBY_NID_VAL) || (val[CONFIG]==STBY_ID_VAL) ||
         (val[CONFIG]==PWRD_NID_VAL) || (val[CONFIG]==PWRD_ID_VAL) ) {
            like_std = 5;
            if((val[CONFIG]==STBY_NID_VAL) || (val[CONFIG]==STBY_ID_VAL))
                  printf("powers-up in standby; SET FEATURES subcmd spins-up.\n");
            if(((val[CONFIG]==STBY_NID_VAL) || (val[CONFIG]==PWRD_NID_VAL)) &&
               (val[GEN_CONFIG] & INCOMPLETE)) 
                  printf("\n\tWARNING: ID response incomplete.\n\tWARNING: Following data may be incorrect.\n\n");
      }

      /* output the model and serial numbers and the fw revision */
      if(val[START_MODEL]) {
            printf("\t%-20s","Model Number:");
            print_ascii(&val[START_MODEL], LENGTH_MODEL);
      }
      if(val[START_SERIAL]) {
            printf("\t%-20s","Serial Number:");
            print_ascii( &val[START_SERIAL], LENGTH_SERIAL);
      }
      if(val[START_FW_REV]) {
            printf("\t%-20s","Firmware Revision:");
            print_ascii(&val[START_FW_REV], LENGTH_FW_REV);
      }
      if(val[START_MEDIA]) {
            printf("\t%-20s","Media Serial Num:");
            print_ascii(&val[START_MEDIA], LENGTH_MEDIA);
      }
      if(val[START_MANUF]) {
            printf("\t%-20s","Media Manufacturer:");
            print_ascii(&val[START_MANUF], LENGTH_MANUF);
      }

      /* major & minor standards version number (Note: these words were not
       * defined until ATA-3 & the CDROM std uses different words.) */
      printf("Standards:");
      if(eqpt != CDROM) {
            if(val[MINOR] && (val[MINOR] <= MINOR_MAX)){
                  if(like_std < 3) like_std = 3;
                  std = actual_ver[val[MINOR]];
                  if(std) {
                        printf("\n\tUsed: ");
                        printf("%s ",minor_str[val[MINOR]]);
                  }
            }
            /* looks like when they up-issue the std, they obsolete one;
             * thus, only the newest 4 issues need be supported. (That's 
             * what "kk" and "min_std" are all about.) */
            if(val[MAJOR] && (val[MAJOR] !=NOVAL_1)) {
                  printf("\n\tSupported: ");
                  jj = val[MAJOR] << 1;
                  kk = like_std >4 ? like_std-4: 0;
                  for(ii = 14; (ii >0)&&(ii>kk); ii--) {
                        if(jj & 0x8000) {
                              printf("%u ", ii);
                              if(like_std < ii) {
                                    like_std = ii;
                                    kk = like_std >4 ? like_std-4: 0;
                              }
                              if(min_std > ii) min_std = ii;
                        }
                        jj <<= 1;
                  }
                  if(like_std < 3) like_std = 3;
            }
            /* Figure out what standard the device is using if it hasn't told
             * us.  If we know the std, check if the device is using any of
             * the words from the next level up.  It happens.
             */
            if(like_std < std) like_std = std;
            if(((std == 5) || (!std && (like_std < 6))) &&
               ( (((val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & VALID) == VALID_VAL) &&
                 ((val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & CMDS_W83) > 0x00ff)) ||
                (((val[CMDS_SUPP_2] & VALID) == VALID_VAL) &&
                 (val[CMDS_SUPP_2] & CMDS_W84) ) ) ) {
                  like_std = 6;
            }  else     if(((std == 4) || (!std && (like_std < 5))) &&
               ((((val[INTEGRITY] & SIG) == SIG_VAL) && !chksum) ||
                ((val[HWRST_RSLT] & VALID) == VALID_VAL) ||
                (((val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & VALID) == VALID_VAL) &&
                 ((val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & CMDS_W83) > 0x001f)) ) ) {
                  like_std = 5;
            }  else if(((std == 3) || (!std && (like_std < 4))) &&
                     ((((val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & VALID) == VALID_VAL) &&
                       (((val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & CMDS_W83) > 0x0000) ||  
                        ((val[CMDS_SUPP_0] & CMDS_W82) > 0x000f))) ||
                      ((val[CAPAB_1] & VALID) == VALID_VAL) ||
                      ((val[WHATS_VALID] & OK_W88) && val[ULTRA_DMA]) ||
                      ((val[RM_STAT] & RM_STAT_BITS) == RM_STAT_SUP) ) ) {
                  like_std = 4;
            }  else if(((std == 2) || (!std && (like_std < 3))) &&
                     ((val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & VALID) == VALID_VAL) ) {
                  like_std = 3;
            }  else if(((std == 1) || (!std && (like_std < 2))) &&
                     ((val[CAPAB_0] & (IORDY_SUP | IORDY_OFF)) ||
                      (val[WHATS_VALID] & OK_W64_70)) ) {
                  like_std = 2;
            }
            if(!std) {
                  printf("\n\tLikely used: %u\n",like_std);
            } else if(like_std > std) {
                  printf("& some of %u\n",like_std);
            } else  printf("\n");
      } else {
            /* TBD: do CDROM stuff more thoroughly.  For now... */
            kk = 0;
            if(val[CDR_MINOR] == 9) {
                  kk = 1;
                  printf("\n\tUsed: ATAPI for CD-ROMs, SFF-8020i, r2.5");
            }
            if(val[CDR_MAJOR] && (val[CDR_MAJOR] !=NOVAL_1)) {
                  kk = 1;
                  printf("\n\tSupported: CD-ROM ATAPI");
                  jj = val[CDR_MAJOR] >> 1;
                  for(ii = 1; ii <15; ii++) {
                        if(jj & 0x0001) {
                              printf("-%u ", ii);
                        }
                        jj >>= 1;
                  }
            }
            if(!kk) printf("\n\tLikely used CD-ROM ATAPI-1\n");
            else  printf("\n");
            /* the cdrom stuff is more like ATA-2 than anything else, so: */
            like_std = 2;
      }

      if(min_std == 0xffff) min_std = like_std > 4 ? like_std - 3 : 1;

      printf("Configuration:\n");
      /* more info from the general configuration word */
      if((eqpt != CDROM) && (like_std == 1)) {
            jj = val[GEN_CONFIG] >> 1;
            for(ii = 1; ii < 15; ii++) {
                  if(jj & 0x0001) printf("\t%s\n",ata1_cfg_str[ii]);
                  jj >>=1;
            }
      }
      if(dev == ATAPI_DEV) {
            printf("\tDRQ response: "); /* Data Request (DRQ) */
            switch(val[GEN_CONFIG] & DRQ_RESPONSE_TIME) {
            case DRQ_3MS_VAL : printf("3ms.\n"); break;
            case DRQ_INTR_VAL : printf("<=10ms with INTRQ\n"); break;
            case DRQ_50US_VAL : printf("50us.\n"); break;
            default : printf("unknown.\n"); break;
            }
            printf("\tPacket size: ");
            switch(val[GEN_CONFIG] & PKT_SIZE_SUPPORTED) {
            case PKT_SIZE_12_VAL : printf("12 bytes\n"); break;
            case PKT_SIZE_16_VAL : printf("16 bytes\n"); break;
            default : printf("Unknown\n"); break;
            }
      } else {
            /* addressing...CHS? See section 6.2 of ATA specs 4 or 5 */
            ll = 0; mm = 0; bb = 0; bbbig = 0;
            if (val[CAPAB_0] & LBA_SUP)
                  ll = (__u32)val[LBA_SECTS_MSB] << 16 | val[LBA_SECTS_LSB];
            if ( (ll > 0x00FBFC10) && (!val[LCYLS])) {
                  printf("\tCHS addressing not supported\n");
            } else {
                  jj = val[WHATS_VALID] & OK_W54_58;
                  printf("\tLogical\t\tmax\tcurrent\n");
                  printf("\tcylinders\t%u\t%u\n",val[LCYLS],jj?val[LCYLS_CUR]:0);
                  printf("\theads\t\t%u\t%u\n",val[LHEADS],jj?val[LHEADS_CUR]:0);
                  printf("\tsectors/track\t%u\t%u\n",val[LSECTS],jj?val[LSECTS_CUR]:0);
                  if(jj)
                        bb = (__u64)val[LCYLS_CUR] * val[LHEADS_CUR] * val[LSECTS_CUR];
                  else
                        bb = (__u64)val[LCYLS] * val[LHEADS] * val[LSECTS];
                  printf("\t--\n");
                  if((min_std == 1) && (val[TRACK_BYTES] || val[SECT_BYTES])) {
                        printf("\tbytes/track: %u",val[TRACK_BYTES]);
                        printf("\tbytes/sector: %u\n",val[SECT_BYTES]);
                  }
                  if(jj) {
                        mm = (__u32)val[CAPACITY_MSB] << 16 | val[CAPACITY_LSB];
                        /* ATA-1 is ambiguous on ordering of words 57 & 58 */
                        if(like_std < 3) {
                              nn = (__u32)val[CAPACITY_LSB] << 16 | val[CAPACITY_MSB];
                              /* check Endian of capacity bytes */
                              if(abs(mm - bb) > abs(nn - bb))
                                    mm = nn;
                        }
                        printf("\tCHS current addressable sectors:%11u\n",mm);
                  } 
            }
            if (val[CAPAB_0] & LBA_SUP) {
            /* LBA addressing */
                  printf("\tLBA    user addressable sectors:%11u\n",ll);
                  if( ((val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & VALID) == VALID_VAL) &&
                       (val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & SUPPORT_48_BIT) ) {
                        bbbig = (__u64)val[LBA_64_MSB] << 48 | 
                                (__u64)val[LBA_48_MSB] << 32 |
                                (__u64)val[LBA_MID] << 16 | 
                              val[LBA_LSB] ;
                        printf("\tLBA48  user addressable sectors:%11llu\n", (unsigned long long)bbbig);
                  }
            }
            if (!bbbig) bbbig = (__u64)(ll>mm ? ll : mm); /* # 512 byte blocks */
            if (!bbbig) bbbig = bb;
            printf("\tdevice size with M = 1024*1024: %11llu MBytes\n", (unsigned long long)(bbbig>>11));
            bbbig = (bbbig<<9)/1000000;
            printf("\tdevice size with M = 1000*1000: %11llu MBytes ", (unsigned long long)bbbig);
            if(bbbig > 1000) printf("(%llu GB)\n", (unsigned long long)(bbbig/1000));
            else printf("\n");

      }

      /* hw support of commands (capabilities) */
      printf("Capabilities:\n");
      printf("\t");
      if(dev == ATAPI_DEV) {
            if(eqpt != CDROM) {
                  if(val[CAPAB_0] & CMD_Q_SUP) printf("Cmd queuing, ");
            }
            if(val[CAPAB_0] & OVLP_SUP) printf("Cmd overlap, ");
      }
      if(val[CAPAB_0] & LBA_SUP) printf("LBA, ");
      if(like_std != 1) {
            printf("IORDY");
            if(!(val[CAPAB_0] & IORDY_SUP)) printf("(may be)");
            if(val[CAPAB_0] & IORDY_OFF) printf("(can");
            else                   printf("(cannot");
            printf(" be disabled)");
      } else {
            printf("IORDY not likely"); 
      }
      printf("\n");
      if((like_std == 1) && val[BUF_TYPE]) {
            kk = val[BUF_TYPE];
            printf("\tBuffer type: %04x: ",kk);
            if (kk < 2)       printf("single port, single-sector");
            else        printf("dual port, multi-sector");
            if (kk > 2) printf(" with read caching ability");
            printf("\n");
      }
      jj = 0;
      if((min_std == 1) && (val[BUF_SIZE] && (val[BUF_SIZE] != NOVAL_1))) {
            printf("\tBuffer size: %.1fkB",(float)val[BUF_SIZE]/2);
            jj = 1;
      }
      if((min_std < 4) && (val[RW_LONG])) {
            printf("\tbytes avail on r/w long: %u",val[RW_LONG]);
            jj = 1;
      }
      if((eqpt != CDROM) && (like_std > 3)) {
            printf("\tQueue depth: %u",(val[QUEUE_DEPTH] & DEPTH_BITS)+1);
            jj = 1;
      }
      if(jj) printf("\n");
      if(dev == ATA_DEV) {
            if(like_std == 1) {
                  printf("\tCan");
                  if(!val[DWORD_IO]) printf("not");
                  printf(" perform double-word IO\n");
            } else {
                  printf("\tStandby timer values: spec'd by ");
                  if(val[CAPAB_0] & STD_STBY) printf("Standard");
                  else                  printf("Vendor");
                  if((like_std > 3) && ((val[CAPAB_1] & VALID) == VALID_VAL)) {
                        if(val[CAPAB_1] & MIN_STANDBY_TIMER) printf(", with ");
                        else                         printf(", no ");
                        printf("device specific minimum\n");
                  } else  printf("\n");
            }
            printf("\tR/W multiple sector transfer: ");
            if((like_std < 3) && !(val[SECTOR_XFER_MAX] & SECTOR_XFER)) {
                  printf("not supported\n");
            } else {
                  printf("Max = %u\t",val[SECTOR_XFER_MAX] & SECTOR_XFER);
                  printf("Current = ");
                  if(val[SECTOR_XFER_CUR] & MULTIPLE_SETTING_VALID)
                        printf("%u\n",val[SECTOR_XFER_CUR] & SECTOR_XFER);
                  else  printf("?\n");
            }
            if((like_std > 3) && (val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & 0x0008)) {
                  /* We print out elsewhere whether the APM feature is enabled or
                     not.  If it's not enabled, let's not repeat the info; just print
                     nothing here. */
                  printf("\tAdvanced power management level: ");
                  if ( (val[ADV_PWR] & 0xFF00) == 0x4000 ) {
                        __u8 apm_level = val[ADV_PWR] & 0x00FF;

                        printf("%u (0x%x)\n", apm_level, apm_level);
                  } else {
                        printf("unknown setting (0x%04x)\n", val[ADV_PWR]);
                  }
            }
            if(like_std > 5) {
                  if(val[ACOUSTIC]) {
                        printf("\tRecommended acoustic management value: %u, current value: %u\n", (val[ACOUSTIC] >> 8) & 0x00ff, val[ACOUSTIC] & 0x00ff);
                  }
            }
      } else { /* ATAPI */
            if(eqpt != CDROM) {
                  if(val[CAPAB_0] & SWRST_REQ) printf("\tATA sw reset required\n");
            }
            if(val[PKT_REL] || val[SVC_NBSY]) {
                  printf("\tOverlap support:");
                  if(val[PKT_REL]) printf(" %uus to release bus.",val[PKT_REL]);
                  if(val[SVC_NBSY]) printf(" %uus to clear BSY after SERVICE cmd.",val[SVC_NBSY]);
                  printf("\n");
            }
      }

      /* DMA stuff. Check that only one DMA mode is selected. */
      printf("\tDMA: ");
      if(!(val[CAPAB_0] & DMA_SUP)) {
            printf("not supported\n");
      } else {
            if(val[DMA_MODE] && !val[SINGLE_DMA] && !val[MULTI_DMA]) {
                  printf("sdma%u",(val[DMA_MODE] & MODE) >> 8);
            } else {
                  if(val[SINGLE_DMA]) {
                        jj = val[SINGLE_DMA];   kk = val[SINGLE_DMA] >> 8;
                        err_dma += mode_loop(jj,kk,'s',&have_mode);
                  }
                  if(val[MULTI_DMA]) {
                        jj = val[MULTI_DMA];   kk = val[MULTI_DMA] >> 8;
                        err_dma += mode_loop(jj,kk,'m',&have_mode);
                  }
                  if((val[WHATS_VALID] & OK_W88) && val[ULTRA_DMA]) {
                        jj = val[ULTRA_DMA];   kk = val[ULTRA_DMA] >> 8;
                        err_dma += mode_loop(jj,kk,'u',&have_mode);
                  }
                  if(err_dma || !have_mode)
                        printf("(?)");
            }
            printf("\n");

            if((dev == ATAPI_DEV) && (eqpt != CDROM) && (val[CAPAB_0] & DMA_IL_SUP)) 
                  printf("\t     Interleaved DMA support\n");

            if((val[WHATS_VALID] & OK_W64_70) && 
               (val[DMA_TIME_MIN] || val[DMA_TIME_NORM])) {
                  printf("\t     Cycle time:");
                  if(val[DMA_TIME_MIN])
                        printf(" min=%uns",val[DMA_TIME_MIN]);
                  if(val[DMA_TIME_NORM])
                        printf(" recommended=%uns",val[DMA_TIME_NORM]);
                  printf("\n");
            }
      }

      /* Programmed IO stuff */
      printf("\tPIO: ");
        /* If a drive supports mode n (e.g. 3), it also supports all modes less
       * than n (e.g. 3, 2, 1 and 0).  Print all the modes. */
      if((val[WHATS_VALID] & OK_W64_70) && (val[ADV_PIO_MODES] & PIO_SUP)) {
            jj = ((val[ADV_PIO_MODES] & PIO_SUP) << 3) | 0x0007;
            for(ii = 0; ii <= PIO_MODE_MAX ; ii++) {
                  if(jj & 0x0001)
                        printf("pio%d ",ii);
                  jj >>=1;
            }
            printf("\n");
      } else if(((min_std < 5) || (eqpt == CDROM)) && ((val[PIO_MODE]>>8) <= 2)) {
            for(ii = 0; ii <= val[PIO_MODE]>>8; ii++) {
                  printf("pio%d ",ii);
            }
            printf("\n");
      } else  printf("unknown\n");
      if(val[WHATS_VALID] & OK_W64_70) {
            if(val[PIO_NO_FLOW] || val[PIO_FLOW]) {
                  printf("\t     Cycle time:");
                  if(val[PIO_NO_FLOW])
                        printf(" no flow control=%uns", val[PIO_NO_FLOW]);
                  if(val[PIO_FLOW])
                        printf("  IORDY flow control=%uns", val[PIO_FLOW]);
                  printf("\n");
            }
      }

      if((val[CMDS_SUPP_1] & VALID) == VALID_VAL){
            printf("Commands/features:\n\tEnabled\tSupported:\n");
            jj = val[CMDS_SUPP_0];
            kk = val[CMDS_EN_0];
            for(ii = 0; ii < NUM_CMD_FEAT_STR; ii++) {
                  if((jj & 0x8000) && (*cmd_feat_str[ii] != '\0')) {
                        if(kk & 0x8000) printf("\t   *");
                        else        printf("\t");
                        printf("\t%s\n",cmd_feat_str[ii]);
                  }
                  jj <<=1; kk<<=1;
                  if(ii%16 == 15) {
                        jj = val[CMDS_SUPP_0+1+(ii/16)];
                        kk = val[CMDS_EN_0+1+(ii/16)];
                  }
                  if(ii == 31) {
                        if((val[CMDS_SUPP_2] & VALID) != VALID_VAL) ii +=16;
                  }
            }
      }
      if((val[RM_STAT] & RM_STAT_BITS) == RM_STAT_SUP) 
            printf("\tRemovable Media Status Notification feature set supported\n");
      
      
      /* security */
      if((eqpt != CDROM) && (like_std > 3) && 
         (val[SECU_STATUS] || val[ERASE_TIME] || val[ENH_ERASE_TIME])) {
            printf("Security: \n");
            if(val[PSWD_CODE] && (val[PSWD_CODE] != NOVAL_1))
                  printf("\tMaster password revision code = %u\n",val[PSWD_CODE]);
            jj = val[SECU_STATUS];
            if(jj) {
                  for(ii = 0; ii < NUM_SECU_STR; ii++) {
                        if(!(jj & 0x0001)) printf("\tnot\t");
                        else           printf("\t\t");
                        printf("%s\n",secu_str[ii]);
                        jj >>=1;
                  }
                  if(val[SECU_STATUS] & SECU_ENABLED) {
                        printf("\tSecurity level ");
                        if(val[SECU_STATUS] & SECU_LEVEL) printf("maximum\n");
                        else                      printf("high\n");
                  }
            }
            jj =  val[ERASE_TIME]     & ERASE_BITS;
            kk =  val[ENH_ERASE_TIME] & ERASE_BITS;
            if(jj || kk) {
                  printf("\t");
                  if(jj) printf("%umin for SECURITY ERASE UNIT. ", jj==ERASE_BITS ? 508 : jj<<1);
                  if(kk) printf("%umin for ENHANCED SECURITY ERASE UNIT.", kk==ERASE_BITS ? 508 : kk<<1);
                  printf("\n");
            }
      }

      /* reset result */
      if((val[HWRST_RSLT] & VALID) == VALID_VAL) {
            printf("HW reset results:\n");
            if(val[HWRST_RSLT] & CBLID) printf("\tCBLID- above Vih\n");
            else                  printf("\tCBLID- below Vih\n");
            if(val[HWRST_RSLT] & RST0)  {
                  printf("\tDevice num = 0");
                  jj = val[HWRST_RSLT];
            } else {
                  printf("\tDevice num = 1");
                  jj = val[HWRST_RSLT] >> 8;
            }
            if((jj & DEV_DET) == JUMPER_VAL) 
                  printf(" determined by the jumper");
            else if((jj & DEV_DET) == CSEL_VAL)
                  printf(" determined by CSEL");
            printf("\n");
      }

      /* more stuff from std 5 */
      if((like_std > 4) && (eqpt != CDROM)) {
            if(val[CFA_PWR_MODE] & VALID_W160) {
                  printf("CFA power mode 1:\n\t");
                  if(val[CFA_PWR_MODE] & PWR_MODE_OFF) printf("dis");
                  else                         printf("en");
                  printf("abled");
                  if(val[CFA_PWR_MODE] & PWR_MODE_REQ)
                        printf(" and required by some commands");
                  printf("\n");
                  if(val[CFA_PWR_MODE] & MAX_AMPS)
                        printf("\tMaximum current = %uma\n",val[CFA_PWR_MODE] & MAX_AMPS);
            }
            if((val[INTEGRITY] & SIG) == SIG_VAL) {
                  printf("Checksum: ");
                  if(chksum) printf("in");
                  printf("correct\n");
            }
      }
}

__u8 mode_loop(__u16 mode_sup, __u16 mode_sel, int cc, __u8 *have_mode) {
      __u16 ii;
      __u8 err_dma = 0;
      for(ii = 0; ii <= MODE_MAX; ii++) {
            if(mode_sel & 0x0001) {
                  printf("*%cdma%u ",cc,ii);
                  if(*have_mode) err_dma = 1;
                  *have_mode = 1;
            } else if(mode_sup & 0x0001) {
                  printf("%cdma%u ",cc,ii);
            }
            mode_sup >>=1;   mode_sel >>=1;
      }
      return err_dma;
}

void print_ascii(__u16 *p, __u8 length) {
      __u8 ii;
      char cl;
      
      /* find first non-space & print it */
      for(ii = 0; ii< length; ii++) {
            if(((char) 0x00ff&((*p)>>8)) != ' ') break;
            if((cl = (char) 0x00ff&(*p)) != ' ') {
                  if(cl != '\0') printf("%c",cl);
                  p++; ii++;
                  break;
            }
            p++;
      }
      /* print the rest */
      for(; ii< length; ii++) {
            unsigned char c;
            /* some older devices have NULLs */
            c = (*p) >> 8;
            if (c) putchar(c);
            c = (*p);
            if (c) putchar(c);
            p++;
      }
      printf("\n");
}

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